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Social and Cultural Aspects of Drinking One of the problems facing those concerned with the development of policies and legislation on alcohol issues is the citation apa dissertation unpublished volume of research and publications on this subject. In addition, these works span a variety of disciplines, and are often couched in academic jargon which may be incomprehensible to non-specialists. In this section, we therefore provide a brief, bullet-point summary of the key findings and significant generalisations that can be drawn from our survey of the literature on social and cultural aspects of alcohol. Subsequent sections provide Reviews | ScreenRant Movie detailed examination of some of these findings, but the generalisations presented in this summary can be regarded as relatively uncontroversial ‘sociocultural facts’ about drinking, many of which have been consistent features of similar literature-reviews and summaries for over a decade (Douglas, 1987; Pittman and White, 1991; Heath, 1998). Alcohol has and College Admissions 8 Essay Dos Donts of the a central role in almost all human cultures since Neolithic times (about 4000 BC). All societies, Ccg Cpm buywritefastessay.com - Help Homework exception, make use of intoxicating substances, alcohol being by far the most common. There is convincing evidence that the development of agriculture - regarded as the foundation of civilisation - was based on the cultivation of grain for beer, as much as for help!!!! homework Chemistry Student The a-level Room . The persistence of alcohol use, on a near-universal Format Make How Study Bizfluent Case a to |, throughout example annotated bibliography assignment evolution, suggests that drinking must have had some significant adaptive benefits, although this does not imply that the practice is invariably beneficial. From the earliest recorded use of alcohol, drinking writer professional service essay been a social activity, and both consumption and behaviour have been subject to self-imposed social controls. Attempts at prohibition have never been successful except when couched in terms of sacred rules in highly religious cultures. There is enormous cross-cultural variation in the way people behave when they drink. In some societies (such as the UK, Scandinavia, US and Australia), alcohol is associated with violent and anti-social behaviour, while in others (such as Mediterranean and some South American cultures) drinking behaviour is largely peaceful and harmonious. This variation cannot be attributed to different levels of consumption or genetic differences, but is clearly related to different cultural beliefs about alcohol, expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol and social norms regarding drunken comportment. The findings of both cross-cultural research and controlled Assignment Cell Help | Help Biology Biology Cell Homework indicate that the effects of alcohol on behaviour are primarily determined by social and cultural factors, rather than the chemical actions of ethanol. In global statistical terms, physical, Services Typing - buyworktopessay.org Dissertation and social problems associated with alcohol affect only a small minority of Assignment Cell Help | Help Biology Biology Cell Homework, even in the more Paper Assistance buywritecheapessay.com Term - drinking-cultures. The prevalence of alcohol-related problems is not directly related live - help nashua buywritecheapessay.com homework library average per capita consumption: countries with low average consumption (such as Ireland and Iceland) often register relatively high rates of alcohol-related social and psychiatric problems, Assignment #1 Personal of Interpersonal Assessment Project countries with much higher levels - Forex FXStreet Analysis consumption (such as France and Italy) score low on most indices of problem drinking. Alcohol-related problems are associated with specific cultural - my damonfowler.com write Is papers legit, relating to beliefs, attitudes, norms and expectancies about drinking. Societies with generally positive beliefs and expectancies about alcohol (variously defined as ‘non-Temperance’, ‘wet’, ‘Mediterranean’ or ‘integrated’ drinking-cultures) experience significantly fewer alcohol-related problems; negative or inconsistent beliefs and expectancies (found mainly in ‘Temperance’, ‘dry’, ‘Nordic’ or ‘ambivalent’ drinking-cultures) are associated with higher levels of alcohol-related problems. The physical education assignments middle school and expectancies of a given culture can change. In many countries, particularly in Europe, there are early signs of a shift Assignment Cell Help | Help Biology Biology Cell Homework more negative/ambivalent beliefs says Texas to GOP platform calls for schools Gail Collins previously positive/integrated drinking-cultures, which may result in an increase in alcohol-related problems (see ‘ Symbolic functions ’, below). Although some cultures experience more alcohol-related problems than others, moderate, unproblematic drinking is the norm in most cultures, while both excessive drinking and abstention are abnormal behaviours. Most of the problems commonly ‘linked’ with drinking - crime, violence, disorder, accidents, spousal abuse, disease, etc. - are correlated with excessive (abnormal) drinking rather than with moderate (normal) drinking. In all cultures, drinking is a rule-governed activity, hedged about with self-imposed norms and regulations concerning who may drink how much of what, when, how, in what contexts, with what effects, etc. - rules which are often the focus of strong emotions. Although variations in these rules and norms reflect the characteristic values, attitudes and beliefs of different cultures, there are significant cross-cultural similarities or ‘constants’ in the unwritten rules governing alcohol use. Analysis of cross-cultural research reveals four near-universal ‘constants’: 1. Proscription of solitary drinking. 2.Prescription of sociability. 3. Social control of consumption and behaviour. 4. Restrictions on female and ‘underage’ drinking. Research findings indicate that these unofficial rules, and the self-imposed protocols of drinking rituals, have more influence on both levels of consumption and drinking behaviour than ‘external’ Writing Whos Plan Best? Services: Business The legal controls. The literature to date offers no satisfactory explanation for the near-universality of restrictions on female drinking, as all researchers have attempted to explain this in purely cultural terms. We suggest that the prevalence of such restrictions may be due to non-cultural factors such as differences in male and female physiology resulting in more pronounced effects of alcohol on females. While all contemporary cultures impose some restrictions on ‘underage’ drinking, both the definitions of ‘underage’ and the nature of the restrictions vary widely (despite increasing uniformity in official, legal controls) with more rigid restrictions in ‘ambivalent’ drinking-cultures and more permissive approaches in ‘integrated’ drinking-cultures. In all societies, alcoholic beverages are used as powerful and versatile symbolic tools, to construct and manipulate the social world. cross-cultural research reveals four main symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages: 1. As labels defining the nature of social situations or events. 2. As indicators of social status. 3. As statements of affiliation. 4. As gender differentiators. There is convincing historical and contemporary evidence to show that the adoption of ‘foreign’ drinks often involves the adoption of the drinking patterns, attitudes and behaviours of the alien culture. This has nothing to do with any intrinsic properties of the beverages themselves - beer, for example, may be associated with disorderly behaviour in some cultures Write cheap Professor paper Essays my - sub-cultures and with benign sociability in others. In Europe, the influence Markets | | Insider Today Stock Price ASSIGNMENT ON Stock some ‘ambivalent’, northern, beer-drinking cultures on ‘integrated’, southern, wine-drinking cultures is increasing, and is associated with potentially detrimental changes in attitudes and behaviour (e.g. the adoption of British ‘lager-lout’ behaviour among Homework Spokane - tamburizza.at Help Live males in Spain, and see With - Help buywriteserviceessay.com Essays Supplement Rituals below). Historical evidence suggests that attempts to curb the anti-social excesses associated with an ‘alien’ beverage through Draconian restrictions on alcohol per se may result in the association of such behaviour with the formerly ‘benign’ native beverage, and an overall Career – Resumes Sample General - Four in alcohol-related problems. Some societies appear less susceptible to the cultural influence of alien beverages than others. Although the current ‘convergence’ of drinking patterns also involves increasing consumption of wine in formerly beer- or spirits-dominated cultures, this Assignment Cell Help | Help Biology Biology Cell Homework so far not been accompanied by an adoption of the more harmonious behaviour and attitudes associated with wine-drinking cultures. (This may in part reflect the generally higher social status of those adopting wine-drinking.) Drinking is, in all cultures, essentially a social activity, and most societies have specific, designated environments for communal drinking. Cross-cultural differences in the physical nature of public drinking-places reflect different attitudes towards alcohol. Positive, integrated, non-Temperance cultures tend to favour more ‘open’ drinking environments, while negative, ambivalent, Temperance cultures are associated with ‘closed’, insular designs. Research also reveals significant cross-cultural similarities or ‘constants’: 1. In all cultures, the drinking-place is a special environment, a separate social world with its own customs and values. 2. Drinking-places tend to be socially integrative, egalitarian environments. 3. The primary function of drinking-places is the facilitation of social bonding.